The principles behind Birth Guides are crafted out of a variety of sources, and if you like to know more in depth information - feel free to dive into the below. 


Scientific Articles

1. Karlström, A., Nystedt, A. & Hildingsson, I. (2015) The meaning of a very positive birth experience: focus groups discussions with women. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 15, 251 ‘15.

2. Hoffmann, L., Hilger, N., & Banse, R. (2023). The mindset of birth predicts birth outcomes: Evidence from a prospective longitudinal study. European Journal of Social Psychology. Advance online publication.

3. Shilling T, Romano AM, Difranco JT. (2007) Care practice #2: freedom of movement throughout labor. J Perinat Educ. ‘07 Summer;16(3):21-4. doi: 10.1624/105812407X217101. PMID: 18566644; PMCID: PMC1948086.

4. Karaman O. E. , YILDIZ H., (2022) “The Effect on Birth Pain and Process of the Freedom of Movement in the First Stage of Labor: A Randomized Controlled Study”, CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES, cilt.12, sa.3, ss.730-738, ‘22

5. Urech C, Fink NS, Hoesli I, Wilhelm FH, Bitzer J, Alder J.(2010) Effects of relaxation on psychobiological wellbeing during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Psychoneuroendocrinology. ‘10 Oct;35(9):1348-55. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2010.03.008. Epub ‘10 Apr 22. PMID: 20417038.

6. Bauer I, Hartkopf J, Wikström AK, Schaal NK, Preissl H, Derntl B, Schleger F. (2021) Acute relaxation during pregnancy leads to a reduction in maternal electrodermal activity and self-reported stress levels. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. ‘21 Sep 17;21(1):628. doi: 10.1186/s12884-021-04099-4. PMID: 34535120; PMCID: PMC8447712.

7. Haines, H.M., Rubertsson, C., Pallant, J.F. et al. (2012) The influence of women’s fear, attitudes and beliefs of childbirth on mode and experience of birth. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 12, 55. ‘12.

8. Leutenegger, V., Grylka-Baeschlin, S., Wieber, F. et al. (2022) The effectiveness of skilled breathing and relaxation techniques during antenatal education on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 22, 856 (‘22).

9. Beigi SM, Valiani M, Alavi M, Mohamadirizi S. (2019) The relationship between attitude toward labor pain and length of the first, second, and third stages in primigravida women. J Educ Health Promot. ‘19 Jul 29;8:130. doi: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_4_19. PMID: 31463315; PMCID: PMC6691615.

10. Savage JS. (2006) The lived experience of knowing in childbirth. J Perinat Educ. ‘06 Summer;15(3):10-24. doi: 10.1624/105812406X118986. PMID: 17541456; PMCID: PMC1595302.

11. James T. Sharkey and others, (2009) Melatonin Synergizes with Oxytocin to Enhance Contractility of Human Myometrial Smooth Muscle Cells, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 94, Issue 2, 1 February ‘09, Pages 421–427,

12. Cascio CN, O’Donnell MB, Tinney FJ, Lieberman MD, Taylor SE, Strecher VJ, Falk EB. (2015) Self-affirmation activates brain systems associated with self-related processing and reward and is reinforced by future orientation. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. ‘16 Apr;11(4):621-9. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsv136. Epub ‘15 Nov 5. PMID: 26541373; PMCID: PMC4814782.

13. Koelsch S, Fuermetz J, Sack U, Bauer K, Hohenadel M, Wiegel M, Kaisers UX, Heinke W. (2011) Effects of Music Listening on Cortisol Levels and Propofol Consumption during Spinal Anesthesia. Front Psychol. ‘11 Apr 5;2:58. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00058. PMID: 21716581; PMCID: PMC3110826.

14. Guittier, MJ., Cedraschi, C., Jamei, N. et al. (2014) Impact of mode of delivery on the birth experience in first-time mothers: a qualitative study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 14, 254 (‘14).


Midwife & Birth Education Platforms

15. Vraag de Vroedvrouw. (2023, March 6). Fysiologie van geboorte 2 [Physiology of birth 2]. Webinar.

16. De verlosmoeder (n.d.). YouTube.

17. Zwangerenportaal. (n.d.). Ruggenprik [Epidural].



18. Hill, M. (2017) The Positive Birth Book. Pinter & Martin Ltd.

19. Gaskin, I. M. (2003) Ina May’s Guide to Childbirth. Bantam.

20. Morgan, M. (2015) HypnoBirthing. Health Communications, Inc.

21. Korteweg, A. M. (2011) Vrije Geboorte. Uitgeverij Lente

22. Chidi, E. (2017) Nurture: A Modern Guide to Pregnancy, Birth, Early Motherhood—and Trusting Yourself and Your Body. Chronicle Books

23. Ou, H. (2016) The First Forty Days: The Essential Art of Nourishing the New Mother. Abrams.


Government & Medical (Alliances) Websites

24. The National Health Service UK (NHS). (n.d.). Pain relief in labour.

25. KNOV (Koninklijke Nederlandse Organisatie van Verloskundigen). (n.d.). Pijnbehandeling met medicijnen [Pain treatment with medication].

26. Richtlijnendatabase (n.d.). Beleid zwangerschap vanaf 41 weken [Policy on pregnancy from 41 weeks].

27. De Gynaecoloog. (n.d.). Poep in het vruchtwater [poop in the amniotic fluid].

28. Helsenorge. (n.d.). Epidural and pain relief during labour.,permanent%20effects%20are%20very%20rare.

29. Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum (LUMC). (n.d.). Gebroken vliezen zonder weeën tussen de 37 en 42 weken zwangerschap [Ruptured membranes without contractions between 37 and 42 weeks of pregnancy].

30. Ikazia Ziekenhuis. (n.d.). Bevallen in het Ikazia Ziekenhuis [Giving birth at Ikazia Hospital].

31. National Center for Biotechnology Information. (n.d.). Amniotomy. In StatPearls.

32. World Health Organization. (n.d.). Skin-to-skin contact helps newborns breastfeed. WHO Western Pacific. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from


Other Websites

33. Spinning Babies. (n.d.).

34. Healthline. (n.d.). Membrane stripping: What to expect and how it works.

35. University of Bonn. (2023, March). The mindset of the expectant mothers affects the birth experience.,positive%20birth%20experience%20after%20delivery.

36. Audio-Technica. (n.d.). The science behind the relaxing effects of music.,patients%27%20stress%20levels%20under%20control.

37. Verywell Family. (n.d.). When to cut the umbilical cord.

38. Third Space. (2021, February). The science behind positive affirmations.,vegetables%20and%20achieve%20more%20academically.

39. Walcher’s Wonder. (n.d.). Kunstmatig vliezen breken [Artificial rupture of membranes].,bevalling%20verder%20in%20gang%20zetten.

40. NCT (National Childbirth Trust). (n.d.). How to labour in water or have a water birth.

41. Women’s Mental Health. (2018, August 13). Relaxation exercises in pregnancy: Benefits for mothers and babies.

[last updated Jan 2024]